Researchers suggest new hybrid resistance spot-laser welding course of to affix aluminum to metal


Researchers from Shanghai Institute of Optics and Wonderful Mechanics (SIOM) of the Chinese language Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed a brand new hybrid resistance spot-laser welding course of to affix aluminum to metal. The method, described in an open-access paper within the journal Supplies & Design, first conducts resistance spot welding of aluminum and metal dissimilar supplies, adopted by laser spot welding.

Utility of aluminum-steel dissimilar supplies physique construction is one in all key options within the automotive business to cut back automobile weight and enhance gasoline financial system. Subsequently, many analysis works have been carried out with a view to obtain high-quality joints utilizing aluminum to metal dissimilar supplies previously many years. Nonetheless, there are two major difficult impediments for welding of aluminum to metal dissimilar supplies.

One is that the extraordinarily low solubility of iron in aluminum (∼0.03 %) results in simple formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC: e.g. FeAl3 and Fe2Al5) within the weld as an alternative of strong resolution phases through the welding course of; the opposite obstacle pertains to massive thermal and residual stress produced within the welds as a consequence of totally different thermophysical properties between aluminum and metal resembling thermal enlargement coefficient, which leads to the crack formation within the IMC layer and/or the weld, thus reducing the plastic deformation capability and fatigue efficiency of the weld.

… Resistance spot welding (RSW) is without doubt one of the mainstream becoming a member of strategies for automotive body-in-white (BIW) manufacturing due to its excessive effectivity and low value. … Regardless of benefits of becoming a member of homogenous supplies, it’s nonetheless troublesome for the traditional RSW course of to immediately becoming a member of of aluminum-steel dissimilar metals.

… In recent times, laser welding has proven many benefits resembling excessive manufacturing effectivity and low warmth enter, and its utility has progressively elevated within the automotive business. … Nonetheless, laser welding of aluminum to metal nonetheless presents nice problem because of the formation of many cracks and brittle IMC, which stop it from being extensively utilized in becoming a member of aluminum-steel.

The aim of this work is to totally take the benefits of RSW and laser welding to attach aluminum and metal dissimilar metals. A hybrid resistance-laser spot welding (HRLW) course of is proposed combining a specifically designed RSW course of with laser welding in an progressive manner.

—Li et al.


Li et al.

The spot welds are made by resistance spot welding connection expertise; round welds are then made across the spot welds by laser flight welding expertise.

The researchers discovered that vital enhancements within the mechanical properties of aluminum/metal joints have been achieved by altering the joint construction and controlling the thickness of brittle intermetallic compounds. The resistance spot weld had a substantial tensile-shear load however poor ductility and power absorption because of the presence of a weak bonding space across the periphery of the joint, which facilitated the crack initiation and fast propagation.

The next laser spot welding course of was carried out within the weak bonding space of the resistance spot welding joint, which inhibited fast propagation of the cracks alongside the faying interface (a faying floor is without doubt one of the surfaces in touch at a joint) avoiding interface fracture.

In contrast with resistance spot welding joints, the tensile-shear peak load and power absorption have been elevated by 18.2% and 424.8% for hybrid welding joints, respectively.


  • Mingfeng Li et al. (2022) “Hybrid resistance-laser spot welding of aluminum to metal dissimilar supplies: Microstructure and mechanical properties,” Supplies & Design doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2022.111022


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